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The basic principle, mechanism, type and characteristics of laser welding 

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The basic principle, mechanism, type and characteristics of laser welding 

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2020-11-30

The basic principle, mechanism, type and characteristics of laser welding 

1. What is laser welding?
Laser welding is a welding method in which the metal (workpiece) to be welded is focused and irradiated with a laser beam to locally melt the metal, and then solidify to join it.

In welding, it belongs to the "fusion welding" category of the solidified base metal of fusion welding, which is a kind of beam welding.
Therefore, it is also called "laser beam welding". Unlike sunlight, laser light is monochromatic, and the lens can concentrate high-density light energy in a small area, thereby increasing the focus temperature to tens of thousands of degrees.


2. Laser welding machine structure
The laser welding machine consists of a laser oscillator, an optical path, a laser focusing part, a driving part and a shielding gas system.

The laser beam oscillated by the oscillator is introduced into the focusing optical system through the optical path.
The laser converging unit uses a converging lens to focus the laser beam into an appropriate size.
By spraying a shielding gas such as argon or helium on the welded parts, oxidation of the molten parts can be prevented and splashing can be reduced. The shielding gas is supplied by steel cylinders.
As the workpiece moves through the drive unit, welding continues.
Laser welding machine structure
 
 
3. Features of laser welding (advantages and disadvantages)
Condenser lens can achieve high-density energy local heating, compared with arc welding, its penetrating power is stronger, and can be joined in a short time. Therefore, it has the advantage of reducing welding distortion. On the other hand, safety measures for strong lasers are required.
Since the laser is invisible and dangerous, it is necessary to take measures to protect yourself from the damage of the laser, such as wearing special safety glasses or covering the welding process with a reflector.

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